Particle morphology

Particle characteristics such as shape or surface structure, as well as the overall morphology, are often correlated to the efficacy of the end gene therapy drug or vaccine product.

EM is an ideal technology to truly understand the effects on particle morphology when you change your upstream or downstream process or product formulation. 

Liposome & LNP based drugs

Morphology including circularity
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Shape (circularity) distribution analysis of liposomes detected by VAS

Liposomal lamellarity
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VAS is employed to quantify lamillarity classes

Thickness of liposomal bilayer
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High magnification cryoTEM of liposomes supports measurements of bilayer thickness

The graph shows the thickness distribution in nm.

Gene therapy & virus based vaccines

Detailed virus morphology
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Examples of details in virus morphology revealed with nsTEM


Virus integrity before Virus integrity after
Rotavirus Influenza


Influenza spike proteins

Influenza virus protein


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