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Quantify the quality of your AAV samples with our advanced ns-TEM and cryo-TEM analyses. Assess overall morphology, including integrity, impurities, filled empty capsid ratio, genome length, and aggregation, to ensure safety and efficacy.


Optimize your AAV purification with our ns-TEM analysis

Figure 5_nsTEM AAV_purification steps

Visualize impurities and assess the effectiveness of each purification step. Achieve higher product quality and minimize debris with our state-of-the-art imaging solutions.

Leverage ns-TEM for comprehensive tracking of your AAV production process


Monitor and screen purification steps with high-quality images to make informed decisions on optimal conditions. Our semi-automated detection offers detailed particle analysis, including individual and cluster/aggregate percentages, for enhanced process control.

Achieve superior AAV vector quality with our cryo-TEM analysis


Cryo-TEM distinguishes between filled, partially filled, and empty capsids for optimized gene therapy results. Our newly developed method for determining genome length is available now which determines the genomic length of AAV with high accuracy.  Our proprietary VAS software, combined with cryo-TEM, offers unparalleled accuracy in AAV sample analysis, enabling optimal manufacturing processes.

Revolutionizing Viral Vector Analysis: AI-Driven Genome Length Determination for Future Applications

By leveraging AI, our method efficiently analyzes the internal densities of viral particles to map the distribution of genome lengths within a sample. The outcomes are striking—a distinct and accurate correlation between density peaks and established genome lengths. This groundbreaking approach allows us to precisely measure the lengths of individual viral particles, providing valuable insights into the predominant particle populations present in the sample.

Our approach goes beyond the traditional method of differentiating between filled and empty particles. Through our technology, you can acquire valuable information regarding the effectiveness of transgene integration into viral vectors. This reveals the existence of any side products or undesired variations, facilitating immediate and informed decision-making based on real-time data.

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What are the technical differences between ns-TEM and cryo-TEM for AAV analysis?
In both techniques, 3 µL of the specimen is used. In cryo-TEM, the specimen is immediately plunge-frozen, while in ns-TEM, a heavy metal salt solution is used for embedding and contrast enhancement. Cryo-TEM allows for the imaging of hydrated specimens at cryogenic temperatures, while ns-TEM is performed at room temperature. The choice of technique depends on the specific requirements of the specimen and the analysis goals.

Discover the full potential of both techniques with our comprehensive analysis table.

FAQ question 1 table

Why does Vironova use cryo-TEM for the characterization of the percentage of filled particles in AAV samples?
Explore the differences between cryo-TEM and nsTEM techniques for analyzing AAV samples with our comprehensive analysis. Three samples composed mainly of empty, filled, and mixed particles were analyzed, and the results obtained from cryo-TEM and nsTEM are compared below.FAQ question 1 table v2

Our study comparing cryo-TEM and nsTEM techniques for analyzing AAV particles shows that the two methods reveal different characteristics. CryoTEM demonstrates a linear correlation between the concentration of filled particles and internal dark pixel intensity, indicating particles containing DNA. In contrast, nsTEM exhibits a flat trend due to the embedding of the sample in a thin layer of stain, making it a good method for comparing particle integrity but not the content of capsids in terms of DNA. Choose the appropriate TEM technique for your research needs and unlock new insights with confidence. Contact us today to learn more about our cutting-edge TEM solutions.

Can TEM be used to study aggregation?
Due to technical differences nsTEM is more suitable for aggregation studies. Cluster/aggregation analysis is recommended  for comparison studies between samples with similar formulations, to obtain a relative assessment of their cluster/aggregate state. The analysis of an individual sample is also possible although this needs to be optimized by us for your own product. Please contact us for further information.

What is the optimal buffer composition of the sample in terms of sugar, salt, and others?

Although Vironova is a specialist in GMP-certified analysis, is it possible to perform a non-GMP analysis?
Yes, we provide non-GMP analysis in cases where there is no requirement for GMP compliance.


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